Sunday, May 4, 2008

Dolphin Sonic Visuals/Acoustic Language

Dolphin Sonic Visuals

Mark Fischer
Wavelets on
Wavelet Images. Mark Fischer, programmer and whale researcher, has adapted a mathematical algorithm known as wavelets to graph cetacean calls. He is mapping whale calls seeking underlying patterns, with the ultimate goal of exploring the potential for cetacean language. Each wavelet here represents between .25 to 1 second of time. The frequency spectrum is limited to the human audible range. These images have been displayed in art galleries in Europe and the USA. In 2005, Interspecies has successfully fundraised to grant a new computer system to Mark, allowing him to generate these images as high resolution movies. His art is printed on museum quality paper using archival inks.


SCOTT TAYLOR : Our link with the Dolphins

...These 'Souls in the Sea' are dolphins and whales and Scott Taylor's life is passionately devoted to bridging the gap between them and us.
The Cetacean Studies Institute Dedicated to enhancing the connection
between Humans and Whales, Dolphins & Porpoises.

CSI is a program of a 501 (c) 3 non-profit organization in the
United States,
and has it's primary offices in
Coffs Harbour, Australia.
CSI moved to Australia in January, 2000, from it's home base in
Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Founded in 1996, CSI has been engaged in building an archive,
conducting research programs, producing educational materials and events,
and developing plans for a major facility in
Byron Bay.
CSI is engaged in psychological research into the effects of dolphin contact,
as well as research into the nature of dolphin language.

Dolphin Communication Research
We are working towards this goal by using cutting-edge technology to:
Record dolphin sounds both above and below water in the broadest spectrum ever achieved.
Analyze these dolphin sounds for harmonic patterns and communication value.
Publish and share this research in scientific journals.

Dolphin Language Analysis
- Our state-of-the-art digital recording capabilities allows us to capture the complete audio spectrum of dolphin vocalization and echolocation. Therefore we are scientifically assessing and analyzing dolphin vocalization and echolocation in ways that were impossible only a few years ago. Within these recordings we have discovered an astounding pattern of melodic modes which are unique to each dolphin and are equivalent to musical notes and chords. These dolphin "songs" are beautiful, yet, so complex that the human ear cannot decipher them without the aid of technology. To help the human ear make sense of these complex dolphin sounds, we have musicians play these musical patterns or "dolphin songs", which are available on our Dolphin Code CD.

We are also in the process of creating an innovative system of written notation for transcribing the unusual qualities inherent in the individual notes produced by dolphins.

Human definitions of language require speech (the signals we use), syntax (the structure we use), and semantics (the signals we use). Researchers must consider the possibility that dolphins may possess a language of tones, inflections, and timing found in languages like Chinese and the whistling language of the Silbo Gomera of the Canary Islands. We believe the discoveries that we have made point to the possibility of a robust language that developed on a different, but tangential, evolutionary path. It is quite possible that the human definition of "language" will have to broaden in order to encompass the dolphins' use of language.
"Eventually it may be possible for humans to speak with another species.

Dolphins Name Themselves With Whistles, Study Says
James Owen
for National Geographic News -May 8, 2006

Dolphins give themselves "names"—distinctive whistles that they use to identify each other, new research shows.Scientists say it's the first time wild animals have been shown to call out their own names.
What's more, the marine mammals can recognize individual names even when the sound is produced by an unfamiliar voice.

Language work with dolphins began at the Institute for Delphinid Research (now Dolphin Research Center) in 1978. The objective was to investigate the possibility of training language-like behaviors to dolphins. Language was defined as consisting of two levels: the naming of objects, and syntax. Syntax refers to the importance of word order when putting nouns with verbs.

An acoustic language using whistles was utlilized. The dolphins were taught that different whistles represented different objects or actions. The whistle language was digitized by a computer and could be produced through an underwater loudspeaker. A juvenile male dolphin named Natua learned four nouns and three verbs. Once Natua understood the words (whistles) for the objects and actions, he was presented with a two-word sentence. When presented with his first combination, the whistles for "towel"/"over", he understood immediately and jumped over the towel in the water. Natua went on to learn a number of two-word combinations such as rock retrieve, towel under, etc. Lack of funding ended this project, but the following year, a television reporter came to cover the story. Natua was given all the different combinations he had learned a year before and responded correctly to almost all of the sequences, indicative of long term memory in dolphins.

Dr. Kathleen Dudzinski : Scientist & Educator
Director, Dolphin Communication Project

Dr. Kathleen Dudzinski has been studying dolphin behavior and communication since 1990 with a focus on tactile, behavioral and acoustic signals employed by dolphins as they share information with each other and across groups. Dr. Dudzinski is Director of the Dolphin Communication Project (DCP), conducts research on three groups of dolphins in both captive and wild environments, and oversees research conducted by graduate students from five universities who collaborate with DCP. Students focus on the behavior, acoustics and communication among and between dolphins residing at four locations around the globe: two wild dolphin populations near (Atlantic spotted dolphins) Bimini, The Bahamas and (Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins) Mikura Island , Japan and two groups of dolphins in human care (both bottlenose dolphins) at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences (RIMS), Anthony’s Key Resort, Roatan, Honduras and at Dolphin Encounters , Nassau, The Bahamas.

Communication and Behavior in the Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis): Relationships Between Vocal and Behavioral Activities. (August 1996)
Kathleen Maria Dudzinski, B.S., The University of Connecticut Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Bernd W├╝rsig

Kathleen Dudzinski, Ph.D. - Doctoral Dissertation
This work presents a description of behaviors and vocalizations of free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in Bahamian waters. The objective is to elucidate mechanisms of intraspecific communication in these dolphins by interpretation of associations between vocal structures, social context, and observed behaviors. The ultimate goal is to evaluate communication and behavior of spotted dolphins in order to eventually understand how an aquatic mammal's sensory abilities permit it to adapt to an environment foreign to terrestrial mammals. While this work does not yield the Rosetta stone to dolphin communication, it does provide a beginning description of associations among their intraspecific interactions, behaviors, and vocalizations.

No comments: